מִדָּה

מִדָּה
מִדָּה, מִידָּהf. (b. h.; preced.) 1) dimension, measure, proportion. Sabb.150a (play on מ̇ד̇ה̇ב̇ה, v. preced.) מ̇אד̇ מ̇אד̇ ה̇ב̇א בלא מ̇׳ bring much, very much, without measure. Peah VIII, 6 מ׳ זו this proportion. Gen. R. s. 64; Esth. R. introd. (ref. to מנדה, Ezra 4:13) זו מִדַּת הארץ that is the from the land as measured, i. e. the (Roman) land-tax. B. Bath.VII, 3 מ׳ בחבלוכ׳ I sell thee exact land-measure by the rope. Ib. 128a מִדַּת ארכו the length-measure of the cloak. Ib. מדת משקלותיו the measure of its (the gold-bars) weights, i. e. an estimate as to how many coins of a certain weight can be obtained from it. Ḥag.12a מדת יום ומ׳ לילה the combined length of day and night. Yeb.76b (ref. to 1 Sam. 17:38) מַדָּיו כמִדָּתוֹ his (Sauls) garments such as fitted his stature. Mikv. X, 5; Ḥull.73a עד מקום (ח)מ׳ as far as the designed length of the handle (excluding the portion which it is intended to cut off).Kidd.42b; B. Mets.56b, a. e. דבר שבמ׳ ושבמשקלוכ׳ objects which are sold by measure, by weight or by the piece. B. Bath.89b לעולם … מ׳ חסירהוכ׳ one must never keep in ones house too small or too large a measure (smaller or larger than the legal size); a. fr.Pl. מִדּוֹת, מִידּוֹת. Ib. 88b עונשן של מ׳ the divine punishment for fraudulent measures. Tosef.B. Mets. VI, 14 לא היו ממונין … אלא על המ׳ they (the agoranomoi in Jerusalem) were appointed not for the regulation of market prices but for the superintendence of the measures; B. Bath.89a, v. אֲנַרְדְּמִיס; a. fr.Men.18a למצות מִידּוֹתַי, v. מָצָח.Whence: Middoth (measurements of the Temple), name of a treatise of the Mishnah, of the order of Kodashim. 2) dealing; reward or punishment; dispensation.מ׳ כננד מ׳ retaliation, adequate punishment or reward. Sot.I, 7, v. preced. Ib. 9a לבמ׳ the verse is to intimate the God dispenses adequate punishments. Ib. 8b (ref. to ib. I, 7) אע״ג דמ׳ בטילח במ׳ לא בתיל although retribution (by the Jewish court) has ceased, the adequate divine punishment has not ceased. Lam. R. introd. (R. Alex. 2) (expl. יען וביען, Lev. 26:43) מ׳ בננד מ׳ punishment corresponding to deed. Ned.32a. Snh.90a כל מִידּוֹתָיו של חקב״ה מ׳ כנגד מ׳ all retributions of the Lord are in correspondence with mans doings. Ber.48b ‘whatever the Lord thy God has given thee דיינך בכל … בין מ׳ טובח ובין מִדַּת פורענות (not מדה) he is thy judge in whatever sentence he decrees upon thee, whether it be a good or an evil dispensation. Ib. IX, 5, v. מְאֹד. Sabb.97a. Ib. 151b לעולם … על מ׳ זו at all times let one pray to be spared this fate (poverty); a. fr.Pl. as ab. Snh.90a, v. supra. Yoma 87b המעביר על מִדּוֹתָיווכ׳ he who passes over his retaliations (who forbears to retaliate), his failings will be passed over (be forgiven); Meg.28a. Ib. לא עמדתי על מִידּוֹתַי I never insisted on retaliation; Kidd.71a ואינו מעמד על מדותיו (Rashi: מיעמיד); a. fr. 3) manner, ways, character, nature, condition. Ber.40a לא כמדת חקב״חוכ׳ the nature of divine (intellectual) affairs is not like the nature of human (material) affairs. Ib. 11b להזכיר מדת יוםוכ׳ to mention the nature of the day (light) at night. Tanḥ. Balak 3 מה מִדָּתוֹ what is the nature of his power. B. Mets.33a מ׳ ואינה מ׳ it is a (meritorious) way (of studying) and is not, i. e. you might to better; Y.Hor.III, 48c top מ׳ שאינה מ׳; a. fr.Pl. as ab. Ab. V, 10 ארבע מ׳ באדם there are four different dispositions of men (as to treating ones fellowman); ib. 11 ארבע מ׳ בדעות four characters (temperaments); ib. 12 ארבע מ׳ בתלמידים four natures of students (with regard to receptive and retentive faculties). Y.Snh.XI, 30a bot. כל שבע מ׳וכ׳ all the seven characteristic features of righteous men which the scholars have defined have been realized in Rabbi. Ned.20b בני תשע מ׳ children conceived under nine (abnormal mental) conditions. R. Hash. 17b, a. fr. שלש עשרה מ׳ the thirteen divine attributes (Ex. 34:6, sq.). Ned.32a, v. פָּרַז; a. fr.מדת הדין a) justice. Tosef.Yeb.IX, 3. a. e., v. לָקָה.Esp. the divine attribute of justice, opp. מ׳ הרחמים, v. דּין II.b) common sense, logical argument. Yoma 43b כך (היא) מ׳ הדין נותנת common sense dictates this; Shebu.14a. Y.Maas. Sh. II, 53c top תחומין עשו (כמ׳) למ׳ הדין they regulated the laws of Sabbath limits according to common sense (not by textual interpretation).c) decision in money matters, civil law (contrad. to ritual law). Y.Gitt.V, 46c bot. אף למ׳ הדין הכן the same principle holds good for civil law (collection of claims, v. כַּפְּרָנוּת); Y.Shebi.X, 39c bot. Ib. (last line) ולמידין מ׳ הדיןוכ׳ do we apply the rules of Prosbol (v. פְּרוֹזְבּוּל) to ordinary claims? Y.B. Kam.V, beg.4d לא הילכו במ׳ הדין אחר הרוב (strike out בממון) in civil law we are not guided by probabilities (v. דוֹב; cmp. Bab. ib. 27b). Y.Ber.II, 5a bot. ולמ׳ הד׳ but civil law (questions of possession). 4) principle, standard, consistency. Men.III, 4 במדתר׳וכ׳ following the principle of R. ; Pes.77b; Y. ib. VII, 34c top. Shek. IV, 6 אינח היא תמ׳ (comment. אינה מן המ׳) this is not consistent (with a previous rule). Ib. 7 השוה את מִדָּתוֹ (Y. ed. מִדּוֹתָיו) he makes his standards even (is consistent). Pes.I, 7 אינת חיא המ׳ this is not the right argument. Ib. 15b אמאי אינה היא המ׳ מ׳ ומ׳ היא why do you say, it is no argument? it is surely a correct argument. Y. Ḥag.III, 77d ‘Menahem went out means ממ׳ למ׳ יצא he went over from one principle to another (joined the opposition; Bab. ib. 16b יצא לתרבות רעה).Esp. מִדּוֹת rules of interpretation. Sifra introd., ch. 1, end הלל … שבע מ׳וכ׳ Hillel the Elder explained seven rules ; Ab. dR. N. ch. 37; Tosef.Snh.VII, 11. Sifra introd., beg. (R. Yishm. said) בשלש עשרה מ׳וכ׳ the Torah is interpreted by means of thirteen rules. (Appendix to treat. Brakhoth. ל״ב מ׳ שלר׳ יוסיוכ׳ the thirty two rules of R. José the Galilean.Lev. R. s. 3, beg. הלכות ומ׳ decisions and interpretations (by which the decisions were reached), v. מְכִילְתָּא.Gitt.67a מִידּוֹתַי תרומה מתרומות מִידּוֹתָיווכ׳ my rules of interpretation are the selection from selections of rules by R. Akiba.Ber.33b שעושח מדותיו של הקב״ח רחמיםוכ׳ he makes compassion the standard (or reason) of the divine laws, while they are decrees (the reasons for which it behooves not man to discuss); Y. ib. V, 9c כקורא תיגר על מ׳וכ׳ because it sounds as if he were finding fault with the ways of the Lord (as if the Lord were partial); כנותן קיצבח למ׳וכ׳ as though he were setting limits to the attributes of the Lord.

Dictionary of the Targumim, the Talmud Babli and Yerushalmi, and the Midrashic Literature. . 1903.

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